These papers were gathered during my research into the wreck in the Cape Verde Islands and the travails of its passengers. The ships are “Letitia”, “Mary”, “Hesperus”, “Jupiter”, “Denmark Hill” and “Ann”.
1828 ‘Letitia’ (Sometimes spelt ‘Laetitia’.)
700 tons. Built 1824. Capt. Hanbury Clements, ex RN ex Cove 20 July, 1828 arr Cape Verde Islands at Port Prava (St Jago) 14 August, 1828, wrecked there on 19 August 1828.
(Green book – Underwriters) Master: Captain H. Clements Rigging: Barque; single deck with beams; sheathed in copper in 1828; fastened with copper bolts Tonnage: 351 tons Construction: in New Brunswick; vessel 5 years old; repairs to damages in 1825; some repairs in 1828. Owners: Lascombe & Co. Draught under load: 17 feet Port of survey: Cowes Voyage: sailed for New South Wales.
(Red Book – Shipowners) Master: Captain R. Simon Rigging: Barque; single deck with beams; fastened with copper bolts Tonnage: 350 tons Construction: 1824 in Saint John, NB; good repairs in 1828 Owners: Stroker & Co. Draught under load: 16 feet Port of survey: Dublin Voyage: sailed for Québec
[Source: Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping.]
NOTE: Lieutenant Hanbury W Clements, (1793 – 1847) had served as a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. In 1824 he captained one of the earliest immigrant ships from Dublin to Hobart. He was master of the ARDENT (7.5.1824). Master and Owner of the GLORY (21.8.1825 – early April 1826). The Glory, colonial vessel most likely to the whaling vessel GLORY, operated in the sperm whaling industry around New Zealand. He owned or captained several ships which transported timber and other goods between ports on the east coast of Australia and South Pacific Islands.
In 1830 he was granted land beyond the Blue Mountains where he traded horses, cattle and sheep, grew crops and built a steam mill. His writing desk (box), and liquor decanters are in the Australian Museum, Canberra. This suggests that, despite newspaper reports that all personal effects were lost at St Jago, Clements recovered some items.
Daughter, presumably born after 1829, was Lydia Jane Tingcombe. NLA MS1512 includes letters to her from Clements. Examine these.
1828 ‘Mary’ Certain Letitia survivors.
- Captain Shuttleworth. Ship 368t. 22 crew.
- London 7.7.1828* – St Jago (Cape Verde Is.) 21.8.1828 – Hobart 19.12.1828. 53 passengers . One died. Lost foremast in heavy storm off the Cape. * Port Jackson record states 2.7.1828
- Left Hobart for Sydney 6.1.1829 with 24 passengers and merchandise and sheep. [Port Jackson arrival records states left Hobart 7 January with 25 passengers.]
- Arr. Sydney 20.1.1829.
(Green Book) Master: Captain Shutleworth Rigging: Ship; 2 decks Tonnage: 369 tons Construction: in Ipswich; vessel 18 years old; good repairs in 1822 Owners: Wigram & Co. Draught under load: 17 feet Port of survey: London Voyage: sailed for Van Diemen Land
(Red Book) Master: Captain Shuttleworth. Rigging: Ship; 2 decks; sheathed in copper in 1825; new copper in 1827 Tonnage: 369 tons Construction: 1811 in Ipswich Owners: Wigram Draught under load: 17 feet Port of survey: London Voyage: sailed for New South Wales.
[Source: Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping.]
Report of the Surveyor and Searcher of Customs, Port Jackson to the Colonial Secretary –
Vessel’s name: MARY Arrived this day, 20 January, 1829
Tonnage: 378 t. 22 men
Master’s Name: Shuttleworth
From whence: London and Hobart Town
When sailed: 2 July, 7 January
Passengers- all except Ann Weston described as “Settlers”: Major Rhode, Henry Douglass, Elizabeth Myers plus five children incl Joseph, Charles Campbell, Benjamin/Lucy Lee plus four children, Thomas Lee, George/Ann Poulton plus 1 child, Thomas Gilman, Samuel Dove, Benjamin and Sarah Ann Samada, and Ann Weston plus 1 male child U12.
Mary – 1828 (Certain Letitia survivors.)
Captain Shuttleworth. Ship 368t. 22 crew.
London 7.7.1828* – St Jago (Cape Verde Is.) 21.8.1828 – Hobart 19.12.1828. 53 passengers . One died. Lost foremast in heavy storm off the Cape. * Port Jackson record states 2.7.1828
[NOTE: 53 passengers of whom Mrs Weston and child; and Mr Murphy were the Letitia survivors taken on board at St Jago. Presumably Murphy disembarked in Hobart.]
Left Hobart for Sydney 6.1.1829 with 24 passengers and merchandise and sheep. [Port Jackson arrival records states left Hobart 7 January with 25 passengers.]
Arr. Sydney 20.1.1829.
Reel 1286 lists emigrants ”from London and Hobart town”:
|CABIN||CHILDREN||COUNTRY||Trade or calling|
|Samuda, B and S|
St JAGO TO RIO.
“… an American Vessel” .. “ left St Jago 27 August, arr. Rio 39 days later”. (Freeman’s Journal 19.12.1828.) [NOTE: i.e. arr. Rio 5 October, 1828 or thereabouts.] This was the “Hesperus” Captain James Allan Jnr, with whom Consul Goodwin had entered into a contract to carry 46 of the 50 survivors left on St Jago, (Mrs Weston and child, and Mr Murphy having been carried onwards on the “Mary”) to Rio de Janeiro. See further detail in the respective Consular reports included with these papers.
[NOTE: Some further research will be necessary in an effort to establish whether the “Hesperus” has any connection to the “Hesperus” in the Longfellow poem “The Wreck of the Hesperus”. There are many theories about the source of the Longfellow theme, including that there was no ship of this name wrecked in the 1839 storm off Boston, or that the ship was named “Herperus”, and other theories. On this matter, Hugh Brown advised by email in 2003 that:
“….the vessel lost at Boston December 16th 1839 was a schooner. Although I do not have it noted on the database I recall the story of the schooner being smashed to pieces on the rocks in a severe storm at Boston. In the morning what was left of the schooner was matchwood and floating amongst the debris were the bodies of the crew and a child (possibly several children). A sight to move anyone indeed. If the survivors were taken on a ship (this term is in most cases reserved for a fully rigged vessel). Then they would not be the same one.”
US Consul, Rio de Janiero Reports.
I have examined the US Consul Wright’s reports covering the period in Rio de Janeiro in an attempt to obtain details of the ship and its movements.. Unfortunately nothing, not even the shipping schedule for the relevant 1828/29 period. One of his reports is of interest however, regarding the problems for shipping in the Atlantic from a month or two before the survivors were carried to Rio. The following is an extract from correspondence from US Consul Wright to US Secretary of State Henry Clay 17.6.1828.
- “The American Brig ‘FOX’ from Gloucester, Mass. Arrived at this port on the 12th inst, having been robbed of a thousand dollars worth of property by a Pirate Schooner (of about 160 tons) between the Western and Cape Verde Islands, the captain of the Pirate Schooner declared his intention to rob every American and English Vessel he fell in with. The Captain of the ‘FOX’ is of the opinion that he was a Ha.. trader from Havana who adopted that mode of procuring an outward cargo. This Pirate afterwards boarded the Brig ‘CONVEYANCE’ from Norfolk near the Cape Verde Islands, but not finding such articles as he wanted, did not plunder him.
- There is a Pirate Brig cruising before the equator, which robbed an English Vessel, and treated the Captain with great brutality. I fear some of our Indiamen will fall into his hands, as I presume such Vessels are the object of his pursuit.”
[US National Archives microfilm T172 of RIO Consulate Papers of 1828/1829.
October 6th, 1828. Consul Goodwin, St Jago to Consul General , Rio. Dated 25 August, 1828.
The bearer of this Letter is Mr Charles Pentland, late Super-cargo of the “Letitia” of Dublin, which was wrecked in this Port on 19th Inst.
As it is very seldom that homeward bound ships touch at this Port, and that no ships for the Coast are expected here this season, I have engaged with Captain Jas Allen Junr to convey on board the Hesperus to Rio de Janeiro 41 passengers and 6 seamen belonging to the late ship “Letitia”.
Mr Pentland has given an undertaking to deliver up to you the unexpended provisions and stores of all kind, with which he is supplied for the use of the distressed British Subjects and seamen on board the “Hesperus”.
[UK TNA Ref. FO 13/51 Pages 303,303]
NOTE by FCM:
|Annette Moore||William Foster||1|
|Moore||John (sic) Cunningham (Conyngham)||1|
|Humphrey Grey||1||Henry Gee||1|
|Margaret Grey||1||Ellen Gee||1|
|Catherine Grey||1||John Gee||1|
|Humphrey Grey Junr||Mary Gee||1|
|Catherine Grey Junr||2||Bessy(?) Gee||1|
|Eliza Grey||Ellen Gee Junr|
|Henrietta Grey||Annie Gee|
|Wm Moriarty||1||Mosin (?) Gee|
|Aphne Moriarty||1||Richard Popham||1|
|Anne Huggard (Duggan?)||1|
|Hanbury Clements Junr|
|Alexander Clark (Clerke)||1|
”This passenger list for the American Ship “HESPERUS” was recorded on the reverse of the contract signed by British Consul John Goodwin and the master of the ‘Hesperus’ James Allan. There are 41 names only, despite the Consul’s advice to The Treasury in London that 46 passengers travelled. This was consistent with the statement of the British Consul in Rio de Janeiro that seven had died en route and that 39 passengers arrived there. (Contemporary newspapers also noted that and listed their names. Four these names were not recorded in the above list.)
However, there is an inconsistency in that Goodwin’s letter to his Rio colleague referred to “forty one” passengers. My conclusion is that the extra four, all of whom died, were to stay at St Jago, ill, but boarded at the last minute. Hence 28 adults and 18 children.
A method of calculating the number of passengers, at least adult passengers, can be used by taking note of the contract providing for “45 dollars each for such numbers of passengers as shall embark. On the other hand, Goodwin, in his letter to the Treasury ststded thet this amount was to be charged for “..the grown up persons, at 45 dollars a head, and the others for nothing..”
The accounts provided by Goodwin suggest that 28 persons were charged for. The above list appears to show 24 “adults” to which could be added four whose names do not appear on it but who were reported as having died en route to Rio.
More study required on this.
Jupiter – 1829
- Ship, Capt Weldy. Built 1796. 347 tons. 19 crew.
- London 22.8.1828 – Rio 24.11.1828 – Sydney 22.2.1829
- Passenger Captain Hanbury Clements RN ,(described arrival passenger list as” Late master of the Letitia, shipwrecked”), Mrs Margaret Clements and 2 male children under 12, to settle. The list of 29 passengers who arrived Sydney on the Jupiter includes no names, apart from the Clements, which appear on the list below.[Report of ship arrival 22.2.1829 Port Jackson.] Reel 1286 lists emigrants as Hanbury Clements, Clements Margt, 2 children, Lieutenant AP, R.N.. Other names were Cabin: Fatade, Foreman, Green, Montefiore, Mecatto. Steerage: Brodie, Delton, Matthew, Sanders, Smith, Thurston, Turnley, Williams.
- Jupiter embarked the Clements family in St Jago.
Report to the Colonial Secretary, of Ship arrived Port Jackson, this day 22 February, 1829.
- Vessel’s Name: JUPITER
Tonnage: 347t. 19 men
Master’s Name: Weldy
From whence: London and Rio
When sailed: 22 August, 24 November
14 cabin passengers, 15 steerage. Total 29. Names available. The only names of interest are “Hanbury Clements, Margaret Clements and 2 male children under 12 yrs. Described as from England and “Late Master of the Letitia, wrecked.”
It will be seen in the Consular papers that the ‘Denmark Hill” was in Rio at the time there was a dispute with the British Consul about the condition of the ‘Anne’. It is not clear at this time whether any of the passengers boarded her. Those of the passengers in most conflict with the Consul did not travel on the ‘denmark Hill’ and waited for the ‘Anne”. Any who boarded the ‘Denmark Hill’ would have had to pay for their passage.
It will be necessary to obtain Port arrival records and perhaps examine the books referred to below.
LOG of LOGS.
Denmark Hill f.r.ship/bark?, 252t, Capt. John FOREMAN:
Ca. 1822 to 1830: In London – Aust trade c.1822-1825, then on the Hobart Sydney Mauritius run:+Recollections of Elizabeth Davis, maid tio the Captain’s ife, and daughter of Daffydd Cadwaladyr, ed. by Jane Williams, 2 Vols, London 1857, same, as bark, Capt. Foreman: Port Louis, 28.6 – Hobart Town, 11.8.1829: + account of 1829 Voyage from Mauritius by Elizabeth Fenton published i “The Journal of Mrs Fenton 1826-30” (London Edw. Arnold 1901)
1830, same ship/Master: Sydney, 4.7, for Mauritius via Inner Barrier Reef in convoy with 5 merchantmen & Crocodile, qv, to Torres Strait.
[Log of Logs. Vol 111. Ian Nicholson.]
‘Denmark Hill’ left London, date? Captain Foreman had commanded the ship for many years, was an aged man and very….Copied p 176, 177.
[Autobiography of Elizabeth Davis, a Balaclava Nurse: Ed by Elizabeth Davis 1789-1860.]
See also references to the Captain of the Denmark Hill in ‘Journal of Mrs Fenton: Elizabeth Fenton d. 1876.’
(August 11 1829 arriving on “Denmark Hill”)
“As we sail up this beautiful Derwent every mile most distinctly marks the progress of civilisation. We are now in sight of Hobarton a small and irregularly built town, viewing it at this distance, but with an indefinable ‘English air’. Mt Wellington, yonder table mountain, rising abruptly over the town, is topped with snow. “
“Pretty cottages are visible in what appeared impervious jungle. There are streaks of lovely yellow sand, fringing each diminutive bay or inlet of the waters among the hills; there are wide fields freshly ploughed, and ploughmen and sowers all busy at their labour with English smock frocks.”
[Journal of Mrs Fenton: Elizabeth Fenton d. 1876.]
‘Denmark Hill’ overweighted with coal, wrecked at Newcastle NSW in 1839.
[CCP Vol ll Page 470.]
There appears to be a number of ships with this name or with the spelling “Ann” or “Anne”. Other records suggest it was a trader in the Pacific, and including Rio and Patagonia. It carried goods to Australia from ports such as Mauritius and Oporto. It was available for charter. It was offered for sale at another time. (The last entry in mid century says “it was taken as a prize.)
An account of the history of the Ann/Anne, up to the time the British Consul chartered her in 1828, is taken from the Consular papers:
“The Anne was launched in the British Colonies of North America in June 1825, and sent as is often the custom, to be prepared in Liverpool, where she was fitted and coppered, and may be said to have commenced her career as a Merchant Vessel, with a cargo for Buenos Ayres in February 1826. In May of the same year, she was detained by the Brazilian Squadron blockading Buenos Ayres, and brought to this Port where she was under trial for about a year, and was released. The needful repairs were made and she has since conveyed two full cargoes of salt to Santos and this Port. Circumstances causing her to be offered for sale here, and as you were very desirous of getting a vessel to convey the persons abovementioned to New South Wales, we with your knowledge and approbation, had the Anne purchased for that service, and she has since been fitted out. “
Van Dieman’s Land RECORDS.
Marine Dept Arrival Records 1829.
Arrived at the Port of Hobart Town, of the Brig Ann June 3, 1830 (sic)
From Whence: Rio de Janeiro
When Sailed: 7th March.
State of Health : Good,
Master: S Cornby,
Owners: Wm Young,
Cargo: Tobacco and Spirits,
Build: Prince Edward Island.
Cabin Passengers: Mr Ghie, Mrs Ghie, & 3 children; Capt Moriarty RN, Mrs Moriarty & 3 children, Miss Hoggart, Mr Moore, Mrs Moore & 4 children, Mr Gray, Mrs Gray, Mr Macnamara, Mr Foster, Mrs Clark.
Steerage: 1 Woman Servant to Mrs Moriarty, Mr Cunningham, Mr Rieley, J Maloney, P Murray, Mr Hayes, J King, J Leahy, J Hayly, J Cashman, Darby Clary,
Signed (Illegible) ….Port Officer.
[Source: Van Dieman’s Land Marine Dept Arrival Records (MB2/39/1 Page13)]
[NOTE: This list adds to 33 but does not include Miss Grey, Mr Grey Junr, and three Grey children. So 38.]
Colonial Secretary Correspondence 1829.
Report of the Arrival at the Port of Hobart Town of the Brig Ann
From Whence: Rio de Janeiro
When Sailed: 7th March.
State of Health : Good,
Master: Samuel Cornby,
Owners: Wm Young,
Tons: 179, Guns: None.
Cargo: salt, Tobacco and Spirits,
Build: Prince Edward Island.
Passengers: Cabin: Capt Moriarty RN, Mrs Moriarty, 2 children, Miss Hoggart, Mr Moore, Mrs Moore & 4 children, Mr Grey, Mrs Grey, Miss Grey, Mr grey Junr, & 3 children, Mr Macnamara, Mr Foster, Mrs Clark. Steerage: 1 woman servant to Mrs Moriarty, Mr Cunningham, Mr Riley, Js Malony, Pk Murray, Mr Hayes, Jno King, Js Leahy, Js Hayly, J Cashman, Darby Clary.
[Tas Archives Col Sec Correspondence CSO1/397/8990 Pages 57)
[NOTE: This adds to 32 names but fails to include a third Moriarty child, or Mr, Mrs Ghie and 3 children, thus 38.]
Brig Ann. 3 June 1829. Report of Arrival. List of Crew and Passengers of Brig Ann from Rio de Janeiro.
Crew: (11 names, not including the master, not listed here. FCM)
Passengers: Cabin: Capt and Mrs Moriarty & 3 children; Mr & Mrs & Miss Moore & 3 children; Mr & Mrs & Miss Grey & 3 children: Mr Grey Junr; Mr Foster; Mr Macnamara; Mr Malony; Mrs Clark; Miss Huggard. Steerage: Mr Cunningham; Mr Riley; Mr & Mrs Ghie & 3 children; John King; Matthew Hayes, Darby Cleary; John Cashman; Daniel Haley, Patrick Murray, John Leahey.
June 6th, 1829.
[Tas Archives Col Sec Correspondence CSO1/397/8990 Pages 58/ 59)
[NOTE: This adds to 37 names but fails to include the woman servant to Mrs Moriarty. Thus 38.
Manifest of cargo on board the British Brig Anne Saml Corneby, master, lading at Rio de Janeiro for New South Wales.
To order of Mr Grey – 666 Rolls tobacco; To order – 305 Rolls tobacco, 23 cases of wine, 500 Handspikes and 2 harpoons, 6 barrels tapioca, 6 casks rum (?), 2 Pipes Rum (?), 4 pipes Wine, 32 Barrels of Pork, 21 Bundles of chairs (?), 20 boxes of raisins, Quantity of salt, one quarter cask of wine, 5 Kgs tobacco.
Signed Samuel Corneby Rio de Janeiro 2 March 1829. Signed again before Collector of Customs, Hobart 8 June 1829.
[Tas Archives Col Sec Correspondence CSO1/397/8990 Page 61, 62)
Tasmanian Shipping Arrivals.
Brig ANNE. 179t. Captain Sam Corneby.
- Leave Rio 7.3.1829 arr Hobart 9 June.
- Cargo of tobacco, wines, salt pork etc, raisins, harpoons, with 34/37 passengers incl Cdr Wm Moriarty and family, shipwrecked in Letitia at the Cape Verde Islands and lost all their belongings.
- (Left for Sydney 22 June, 1829 with part of original cargo and 4 persons from Rio, and Mr Lofgreen.)
- [Tasmanian Shipping Arrivals and Departures 1803 – 1833. Ian Nicholson.]
MEMORANDUM to the Colonial Secretary, Hobart:
8 June 1829: It has been asserted to me that six (sic) Irishmen, who had emigrated to Rio and there suffered great privations, have proceeded hither by the Ann, and that two of them are in a bad state of health. Desire the Colonial Surgeon to admit these same (who are named in the margin) into the Hospital.
Names in margin: Patrick Murray, John Cashman.
[Tas Archives Col Sec Correspondence CSO1/397/8990 Page 64)
PORT JACKSON RECORDS
- Brig Anne arrived in Port Jackson on 8 July,1829. 179tons. 12 men. Master Corneby. Sailed from Hobart town 28 June. Lading: Sundries Report to The Hon. Alexander McLeay, Esq, of a Brig arrived in Port Jackson, this 8th Day of July, 1829. Signed by the “Landing Waiter and Tide Surveyor, Port Jackson”.
- Vessel’s Name :ANNMaster’s Name: CornebyWhen Sailed: 28th June
- Lading: Sundries
- From whence: Hobart Town
- Tonnage: 179 Tons 12 men.
|Passengers’ Name||Country||Profession, Trade or Calling|
|F W Lofgreen||England||Mariner.|
|Thos Moore||England||Private RNC|
|One returned convict|
[NOTE: Lofgren was not on Letitia.}
LIST OF CREW BRIG ANNE – SAML CORNEBY, MASTER
Eleven Crew, not including Master: Not typed here.
Passengers from Rio de Janeiro:
Joseph Macnamara, William Foster, Edward Cunningham.
From Hobart Town:
Mr Lofgreen; One Private R V Cy – NSW Corps.
[ Colonial Sec Correspondence CSO1/397/8990 Page 63]