Destination – Why New South Wales?
Many emigrants already had relatives in the Australian colonies. Charles and Susan Murray were only part of what was to become known as ‘chain migration’ from particular counties in Ireland from the late 1830’s. The process was one by which a pioneer immigrant encouraged out another family member, who encouraged out a friend, who encouraged out aunts, uncles, cousins, and so on.
Many of these emigrants, once in New South Wales tended to settle close to family and friends from their original native place in Ireland. Chain migration functioned as a social mechanism, easing the immigrants’ inevitable sense of exile and loss by making it possible to surround themselves with some familiar faces.
At right is an example of an original printed advertisement by an immigration agent, as it appeared in the newspaper of the time. Publicity encouraging migration to Australia took a variety of forms including handbills posted in strategic places, newspaper reports, and letters. Such letters, from happy settlers in the new land, were read by recipients beyond the family circle to the whole village, and raised expectations for personal and social improvements.
As another illustration of how attractive emigration to New South Wales was portrayed, here is an encouraging advertisement from The Londonderry Sentinel of 25th April 1840.
Emigration to Australia per ‘Champion’
James Cairns Emigration Agent at Londonderry
The subscriber begs leave to acquaint the public that he has made arrangements with a most respectable House in Liverpool, which sails a first class, well appointed ship every month throughout the year for the above flourishing colony, by which A FREE PASSAGE will be given to approved married mechanics, gardeners, shepherds, farm-servants, etc.
(Those having families will find the subscriber’s terms very advantageous, and the members are not separated on board these ships, which is not the same by the regulation of other companies).
Unmarried labourers and good household servants will receive a passage on very moderate terms … Emigrants on their arrival in New South Wales, will be quite unrestricted, and at perfect liberty to engage themselves in any way they may consider the most for their own advantage’.
[ McLAUGHLIN, Trevor. From Shamrock to Wattle: Digging up your Irish ancestors, Sydney:Collins, 1985, p.65-66.]
Alick Osborne, Immigration Agent for Australia
John and Alick Osborne, naval surgeons in the service of His Majesty George IV, had sailed to New South Wales as surgeons in charge of convict ships. They liked what they saw, and eventually settled there. With the imminent cessation of the convict free labour system in the late 1830s, there was a growing need to find agricultural labourers to work on their farms in the Illawarra district of New South Wales.
It was timely that, in 1836, the Irish Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, despatched Alick Osborne back to Ireland ‘to select emigrants and bring them out to this colony’. With Captain Alick Osborne RN setting himself up as an Emigration Agent at the port of Londonderry, the Osbornes advertised their free immigration scheme in newspapers inTyrone and West Fermanagh. Alick had taken to himself the title of ‘His Majesty’s Emigration Agent for Australia, Omagh.’
With advertisements in newspapers such as the Erne Packet, Alick Osborne expected to receive many applications from West Tyrone, Fermanagh and South Donegal.
Numerous families from the north Fermanagh area close to Dromore were inspired by the Osbornes to emigrate to the Illawarra in NSW with an assurance of work. Just across the border from Fermanagh, Dromore in County Tyrone was probably no more than ten miles from Kesh and Aghinver.
Assisted immigration to New South Wales
The proceeds from sale of Crown lands in Australia were used to finance the ‘free passage’ emigration scheme. The passage would be free, but applicants were required to pay a small deposit. Although the Government would provide bed and board gratis, the passengers were expected to provide their own clothing, both for the journey and for use in the Colony afterwards
It seems likely that Charles Murray was aware of the Osbornes’ advertisements and was convinced that emigrating would offer a better life for his family. North America was, of course, an attractive alternative destination; “Ameriky,” was a more familiar name and idea.
Those, like Charles Murray who chose far-off Australia, perhaps had a particularly adventurous streak. However, there would be many decisions and tasks to attend to before setting off on such a journey. Even with bounty assistance, a large emigrant family needed a lot more money to travel to far-off New South Wales than to America.
West Fermanagh tenants possessed church land that was not of high quality, being rough unproductive pasture. Many sold the tenant rights in their farms and used that towards expenses for their passage to Australia; Charles Murray of Kesh/Aghinver may have been in a similar situation. Contributions towards their fares were only part of the expense; they had also to provide themselves with a substantial sea chest of clothing appropriate to a lengthy voyage of between three to four months and on which extremes of climate were experienced..
There was also the expense of fares to and accommodation at the port of embarkation, often in England. Between 1837 and 1845 this inconvenience was lessened somewhat for the Irish, as some emigrant ships sailed directly for Sydney from Irish ports. Fortunately, in 1839, Charles Murray’s family had only to get themselves and their belongings as far as Londonderry; the Susan would sail from there on the long sea voyage to Port Jackson.
Farewelling the emigrants
There are many accounts of the tearful farewells when the emigrant ships departed Ireland’s shores. It is very likely that some Murray family members accompanied them from their Fermanagh villages or townlands to the port of Londonderry, in order to say their last goodbyes. One such emigrant described the final parting.
‘Shrieks and prayers, blessings and lamentations, mingled in “one great cry” from those on the quay and those on shipboard, until a band stationed in the forecastle struck up Patrick’s day.’
William Allingham, Ballyshannon poet and customs officer, was present when the emigrant ships made ready to sail. In his Diary 1824-1846, he writes,
‘I never heard anyone express the least fear of the dangers and hardships of the long voyage in an often tightly-packed and ill-found sailing ship; but great was the grief of leaving home and “the ould counthry,” and vehemently, though not affectedly, demonstrative were the frequent parting scenes.’
Allingham shows this anguish in his poem, The Winding Banks of Erne. His words surely reflected the feelings of our Fermanagh emigrant Murray family as they said their farewells to family and friends left behind when the Susan left Londonderry for New South Wales.
Adieu to evening dances, when merry neighbours meet
And the fiddle says to boys and girls, ‘Get up and shake your feet!’
To ‘shanachus’ and wise old talk of Erin’s days gone by-
Who trench’d the rath on such a hill, and where the bones may lie
Of saint, or king, or warrier chief; with tales of fairy power,
And tender ditties sweetly sung to pass the twilight hour.
The mournful song of exile is now for me to learn-
Adieu, my dear companions on the winding banks of Erne!
However, those emigrants who arranged their travel to Australia were generally better off than those who left Ireland for North America. The costs involved in shipping out to Australia were obviously much higher. Australia, therefore, attracted a significant proportion of emigrants with the resources to set themselves up in business or on the land in the expanding agricultural hinterland of the coastal settlements.
The descendants of these Ulster emigrants were to play a significant role in the shaping of Australian society.
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- REID, Richard, “Green threads of Kinship: aspects of Irish chain-migration to New South Wales, 1820-1886”; Familia: Ulster Genealogical Review, Vol. 2,No.3,p.47-56.↵
- An Australian emigration agent called Ramsey was based in Derry at this time. (Ref: email from Brian Trainor 8/11/99).↵
- McDONNELL, Pat. ‘The voyage of the Adam Lodge’, Clogher record 1988 (p.132-137).↵
- TRAINOR, Brian (Dr.). Visiting Lecture at Archives Authority of NSW 1988.↵
- The Irish Australians: the Irish emigrant, ed. by Richard Reid and Keith Johnson, Sydney:SAG & UHF, 1984, p.29.↵
- Ireland: Its Scenery, character, etc by Mr and Mrs Samuel Carter Hall 1841-43.↵
- William Allingham, Poet, born at Ballyshannon March 19, 1824. Died London Nov 18,1889.↵